Herpes Vaccine Research Blog

Halford Formal Photo

WHO AM I?

My name is Bill Halford and I am an Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine in Springfield, Illinois.  I have studied herpes simplex virus (HSV) biology since 1991, and I became interested in trying to develop a safe and effective HSV-2 vaccine in 2006.  There are at least 100 individuals in the world who are actively pursuing a HSV-2 vaccine, and I am one of these many researchers.  In this blog, I will try to cut through the nomenclature and statistics and explain in relatively straightforward terms what we know about HSV-2 vaccines and what we need to do next to advance a safe and effective HSV-2 vaccine to human clinical trials.

 

DISCLAIMER

The author of this website, Bill Halford, is an employee of the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine in Springfield, Illinois.  The viewpoints expressed on this website are solely that of the author, and should not be construed as an official statement of the policies, procedures, or opinions of Southern Illinois University, the School of Medicine, or any of the academic departments contained therein.

 

BACKGROUND ON HSV-2 INFECTIONS AND GENITAL HERPES

Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) remains a huge medical and public health problem.  About 540 million people between the ages of 14 and 49 are life-long carriers of the HSV-2 virus.  About 5% of HSV-2 carriers live with genital herpes outbreaks that recur once every 2 to 12 months over the duration of their lives.  Each outbreak can last from 2 to 20 days in duration, and is physically uncomfortable and emotionally distressing.  Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir or valacyclovir (valtrex) reduce, but do not prevent the symptoms of recurrent genital herpes.  Likewise, antiviral drugs have not slowed the spread of HSV-2 infection at all; 10 to 20 million per year continue to acquire new HSV-2 infections from the hundreds of millions of people who already carry HSV-2.

HSV-2 genital herpes has been described as a silent epidemic.  This term is apt, as HSV-2 exists all around us and is carried by friends and family members, but people are reluctant to disclose that they are infected with HSV-2 as there remains a historical stigma associated with this infection.  Many people who have HSV-2 have had one or just a few sexual partners, and many teenagers who acquire HSV-2 have the misfortune of acquiring HSV-2 with their first sexual partner.  Nonetheless, the HSV-2 infection bears a social stigma, and people do not openly discuss their infection status.  Thus, most non-HSV-2 carriers assume that HSV-2 genital herpes is a relatively uncommon condition.  This is dead wrong.  One number helps put the problem into perspective; each of our children has a 1-in-10 chance of contracting a HSV-2 infection before they are married.

Aside from the individual suffering caused by recurrent genital herpes, HSV-2 infections can cause more severe complications such as HSV-2 infections of newborns as they pass through the vagina / birth canal.  The immune system of neonates is not yet developed, and thus HSV-2 infections in newborn babies can be devastating often resulting in death or severe mental / cognitive impairment, as HSV-2 infection can spread to the central nervous system of newborns.

 

THE POTENTIAL UTILITY OF A HSV-2 VACCINE

Effective vaccines have been responsible for the eradication and/or control of many viral diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, red measles, mumps, German Measles, hepatitis B, chickenpox, and poliomyelitis.  In principle, there is no reason that a safe and effective HSV-2 vaccine could not be deployed in the human population to prevent HSV-2 genital herpes.

The applications of a safe and effective genital herpes vaccine would be two-fold.

First, an effective HSV-2 vaccine could be given to adolescents or prospective sexual partners of those who already carry the HSV-2 virus.  Exposure to an effective HSV-2 vaccine would bolster the immune system of such individuals such that their bodies were at least 100 times better prepared to repel the real (wild-type) HSV-2 pathogen if they were exposed later in life.  Such a “preventative HSV-2 vaccine” could be used to prevent ~20 million per year from newly acquiring the HSV-2 virus.

Second, an effective HSV-2 vaccine could be given to those who suffer from frequent outbreaks of recurrent genital herpes.  Such a “therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine” could be used to reduce the frequency and duration of genital herpes outbreaks in those ~40 million people worldwide who suffer from this chronic viral disease.  This latter application of a HSV-2 vaccine (i.e., to reduce symptoms in those who already carry the HSV-2 virus) would be more experimental, and less of a sure thing than a preventative HSV-2 vaccine.  Nonetheless, there are several publications dating back to the 1950s that claim such an effect has been obtained by treatment with a variety of vaccine formulations including inactivated-preparations of HSV virion particles.  Therefore, once a safe and effective HSV-2 preventative vaccine is identified, it will be relevant to determine if it has potential  to also serve as a therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine.

 

WHY DO WE STILL LACK AN EFFECTIVE HSV-2 VACCINE?

This is the million-dollar question and the focus of the Herpes Vaccine Research Blog.

I envision posts on this blog serving one of three general purposes, and these will be discussions of:

1.  The science of HSV-2 vaccines

2.  Moving a safe and effective live-attenuated HSV-2 vaccine into human trials

What I hope to make clear through the development of this blog is that a safe and effective HSV-2 vaccine lies within our grasp, but what we lack is a critical mass of support to advance such a HSV-2 vaccine to human clinical trials.  The primary barriers to the advancement of an effective HSV-2 vaccine are (1) misinformation and (2) a pre-conceived notion that live-attenuated HSV-2 vaccines should not be investigated or considered for use as a human vaccine.

One of the central purposes of this blog will be to (try to) simply explain why past HSV-2 vaccines have not worked, and define what we need to do differently in the future if we intend to end the needless suffering caused by genital herpes.  Make no mistake…..HSV-2 genital herpes is a vaccine-preventable disease.  However, the field of HSV-2 vaccine research is long overdue for a “course correction.”  I hope that this blog serves as a vehicle to increase the public’s understanding of what we need to do differently in the future if we hope to make HSV-2 genital herpes a disease of the past.

– Bill Halford

587 thoughts on “Herpes Vaccine Research Blog

  1. Jay James says:

    Hi, I experienced a severed headache yesterday. And this morning I noticed a set or bumps at the side of my lip so I visit the doctor and I was told it was Labial Herpes Simplex. Am scared because I don’t want my family or friends to get. So I was wondering if this vaccine could be available Guyanese? And how soon?

    Like

  2. Mary says:

    I just found out I have the antibodies to herpes 1 and 2. I am 66 years old. I have never had any symptoms. I understand you can have the antibodies but not have the virus which is the goal of the vaccine. I heard a PCR test can tell if you indeed have the DNA. Can that be done with a blood test?

    Like

  3. John says:

    CAN SOMEONE FROM WILLIAM HALFORD’S TEAM PRIVIDE AN CLEAR UPDATE ON THE VACCINE? SOME PEOPLE SAYS IT IS OVER, OTHERS SAY THAT STILL IN NEGOTIATIONS
    WE WILL APPRECIATE AN ACCURATE UPDATE.

    THANK YOU

    J

    Like

    • Herpes Vaccine Research says:

      Dear John,
       
      Thank you for contacting us and voicing your concern. There are many individuals that have reached out to us in the wake of Dr. Halford’s passing who are concerned that the mission Dr. Halford worked so hard to achieve in his lifetime will now subside with his passing. We can say wholeheartedly that that is not the case and that the team at Rational Vaccines which Dr. Halford left behind is moving full speed ahead, after successfully closing a round of venture capital financing, towards full product development and testing, in a continued effort to bring our vaccines to market and treat individuals all around the globe. As we work our way through the myriad complexities of further professionalizing our company and developing our vaccines from academic lab scale production in early phase I trials into GMP grade production with follow-on clinical evaluation, we ask you to remember something important about us: first and foremost, we do not see ourselves as another biotech company competing for a piece of a hypothetical ‘market share,’ but instead a group of individuals that have aligned around a common cause. It is this same cause that Dr. Halford set out upon twenty plus years ago when he attempted to generate an attenuated live viral vaccine for HSV in order to improve the standard of therapeutic care for HSV and ultimately one day eradicate HSV globally. We are admittedly a small team, consisting of just a handful of people working around the clock, but our strength does not lie in the number of individuals working for us. Instead we see our strength lying in our dedication to the mission Dr. Halford set out upon, as well as the vast number of individuals that we may one day serve to help.
       
      We are forever grateful to all those who have remained faithful to our efforts and intentions which are as steadfastly focused upon Dr. Halford’s mission now, as they were then.

      Sincerely yours,
      Team Rational Vaccines

      Liked by 1 person

      • Juan says:

        To Dr. Halford’s Team:

        Thank you for the clarification on the vaccine process! Coming from the team, we appreciate your update. Million of us now can breath much better knowing that this team continues working and people that hear rumors and saying that it’s this process it’s over are wrong!! Question: are you still targeting to sell the vaccine in the Caribbean by this fall or do you think it will take more time.. if so, could you provide an estimate date? Also, how can the million of us sufferers may help? Can we continue giving our donations ?

        Thank you!

        JOHN

        Like

      • Herpes Vaccine Research says:

        Dear John,

        We are glad to hear that our response provided relief to you, and may have done the same for others. Rational Vaccines is always reachable via our Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/rationalvaccines), so know that we are never too far away.

        In terms of your question regarding being able to access Theravax HSV-2 from the Caribbean, we’d like to clarify that there is nowhere in the world where Rational Vaccines is considering to sell the vaccine to individuals. We have explored what is known as “named patient programs” for providing patients access to Theravax HSV-2 through their primary care practitioners, but are still evaluating the most responsible ways of doing so, in localities where such named patient access is understood and accepted from a regulatory standpoint, and therefore for the time being we have no update to share in this regard. For more information on named patient programs, feel free to visit the following Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Named_patient_programs

        As far as ways that you and others can help, we would say that spreading the word about us to your friends and loved ones is always a great thing and helps us connect to more individuals who may one day benefit from what we are working so hard to accomplish. In addition, feel free to “like” our Facebook page and share articles we post there, as that is also a great way to share our message and our mission with others.

        Sincerely yours,
        Team Rational Vaccines

        Like

      • Juan says:

        Thank you so much for your kind words!
        Can someone please reach me directly via email or phone number? Or how can I reach you directly? I personally used to have conversations with Dr. Halford… however no answers neither his direct emails and phone calls!! I am desperate and anxious to talk to someone in this team. Thank you so much

        JOHN

        Like

      • Herpes Vaccine Research says:

        Dear John,

        We are glad that at least some of your questions and concerns have been addressed by us. In regards to our availability to engage with you and others by telephone, we kindly would like to remind you that we are a very small team, working under tight timelines and a small budget so we do not have the personal resources required to engage with individuals by phone, but we do endeavor to address all questions we receive by email (info@rationalvaccines.com), so feel free to reach us there.

        Sincerely yours,
        Team Rational Vaccines

        Like

      • Hopeful says:

        Team Rational Vaccines:

        Thank you so much for your response as those of us who read this blog are very grateful for your dedication and perseverance to this cause. Our thoughts and prayers remain with Dr. Halford’s family and with your team.

        Sincerely,
        Hopeful

        Like

      • Mary says:

        I support you 100%. I am working with UW here in Washington state. I am 66 years old no symptoms but have antibodies for one and two. UW is going to talk to me this week. From our past conversations with them there is no method they know of to test for the actual DNA or virus. The PCR test requires an outbreak which I have never had on my lips or lower body. My X husband had a severe case of Herpes one. I was married for 30 years. I was exposed but never had an outbreak. I do not believe I have the virus but do have the antibodies. I understand a vaccine is being created and the fact that some people do have just the antibodies has supported the possibility of creating the vaccine. Could you direct me to a way to conclude my status? I would be happy to be in a trial if one exists. Thank you

        Like

  4. Suffering says:

    It’s over. We lost. Now that the FDA is going to be involved in all further testing and development of the vaccine, I think everyone who follows this blog needs to know that no vaccine is in sight. It will now take at least $2.7 billion and 13 years before Halford’s vaccine candidate could possibly be approved. Even then, the chance of such a vaccine ever reaching the market is only about 12%. We can all thank the great FDA for “protecting” us.

    Like

    • PH says:

      I sincerely hope the formula gets leaked and this somehow becomes a grey market vaccine, like Melanotan did for tanning – people with little chance of ever feeling normal (red heads in particular) in Summer

      Many people sought and paid £$€ privately, because this product genuinely worked, even though FDA pooped all over it… it even got sourced from illicit Chinese labs eventually when they started cracking down on it

      Like

    • Jim says:

      Dear Suffering. Naturally I hope you are wrong. We shouldn’t ever give up on this and there is no reason to give up. There is everything to gain from getting word of our suffering out into the medical fraternity and we now have a vast array of research papers at our fingertips, to prove it. I’m often reminded of the medical profession’s reaction to a Dr Semmelweis, who claimed that it was necessary for physicians to wash hands before maternal delivery, in order to reduce the number of deaths from infection. He was ridiculed by his colleagues and they were unhappy with this new finding because it presented the physician as the possible source of the infection. Medical science, by its very nature, is always behind, slowly catching up.

      Whilst I’d agree that the chain of events this year has presented great challenges, firstly with the manuscript being submitted to Future Medicine, then receiving a negative response, followed more recently by Dr Halford’s unfortunate passing away, I think that the greater extent of publicity that we are seeing, at least has a chance of putting the subject of herpes-complications on the table for discussion. Previously it was a non-subject.

      Some sufferers well know that when they approach their medical practitioners, they often receive a blank look and a rejection of the idea that herpes is the causative factor. What we do have is a very large community of sufferers with herpes neurological complications and ongoing morbidity from it, or simply recurrent viral activity. This sort of publicity may present an opportunity for people like you and I, together with the many others who read this blog, to convey what we’re going through and put into eloquent and persuasive terms, why the vaccine from William Halford – even if it caused immune reactions in certain individuals – is infinitely better that the misery and despair that we suffer as a direct consequence of the virus. This is essentially the sort of argument we need to put forward – that for thirty years almost no progress has been made within the field of HSV vaccines and Dr Halford was one of the few to make substantial progress with it.

      Perhaps the extreme efforts which Dr Halford went to, in order to launch the vaccine in St Kitts, gives some indication of how he acknowledged the level of suffering that so many of us are going though. I am sure that those arrangements within St Kitts and all the associated travel for the participants was no small undertaking. I think the press needs to be made aware of just why Dr Halford was motivated into doing it – it was based on the considerable feedback and pleas for help that he received from the many sufferers who followed his progress. It’s really up to us to be forceful. Much of the evidence of patients’ suffering is within this blog! Jim, Thailand.

      Like

  5. Tan Na says:

    Hi, I hope to get this vaccine in the market as soon as possible, because this disease makes me very painful, let me depressed even the heart of death have

    Like

    • Jim says:

      Dear Tan Na, try to keep optimistic with all of us here, that we will indeed see this vaccine’s availability soon. We all understand what you’re going through. Jim – Thailand.

      Like

  6. Juan says:

    Dr. Gershburg, We will appreciate any update on the availability of the vaccine in Dominican Republic? There are so many rumors and the only trusted info will be the one coming from you and we will be so glad if you can posted

    Thanks a million

    Like

  7. jay says:

    I heard that you guys are now in trouble about the trial you conducted and investors are demanding you follow the fda rules. Any updates would be useful! Has the fda now destroyed any chance of this vaccine coming to fruition?

    Like

    • Vitamin C says:

      Here is a link to the article you are referencing. Ihttps://www.google.ca/amp/s/www.cnbc.com/amp/2017/09/01/herpes-vaccine-firm-backed-by-peter-thiel-promises-fda-oversight.htm. I find it absolutely fascinating the degree of pressure that has been applied to Rational Vaccines!!! I think it is amazing and disgusting that this clinical trial is being labeled unethical. Frankly, it is unethical that a vaccine has not been developed for all this time and subunit vaccines continue to get funded even with decades of failed research behind them. Herpes is a Stigmatizing, isolating and dangerous disease that has been neglected and sidelined. I dont, for one minute, regard the FDA as a guardian of ethical practice. They maintain the status quo; whish is Valtex. During this period of time herpes has grown to epidemic proportions and they have the audacity and arrogance to comment on ethics!!!! And, the funders of Rational Vaccine now see massive $$$$ signs,,,on the one hand they critize Halford for his study but on the other they have seen the massive Hugh success of the vaccine due to said clinical trial. They aren’t pulling out – that’s for sure!!! I think many people in the herpes vaccine game are pissed of because Halford beat them to the punch and with good results. There are so many players that don’t want this vaccine to see the light of day! The politics is absolutely disgusting especially given that public health is on the line. I’m angry. Angry at the FDA. Angry at the narrative being spun about Halford and angry at investors pandering to the FDA.

      Like

      • Jim says:

        Well said Vitamin C, your comments are always very helpful at difficult times. I think quite often it’s also the case that the medical world moves very slowly and reluctantly and at times appears to be extremely unwilling to commit to new ways of thinking, even in the face of what we would regard as compelling evidence. That said, there does seem to be a degree of injustice in allowing the vaccine to reach those who really need it – in some cases quite desperately. Jim – Thailand.

        Like

      • jay says:

        Since no one official has answered my question I assume rational vaccines is now under the fda microscope for having solved the herpes problem. It seems like the chance of us seeing this medication in any country is now hanging by a thread. FDA can burn in hell. Bill Halford is a HERO!

        Like

  8. slick says:

    please this virus has killed me..i can do anything to get rid of this virus,please you can use me for the trails please am ready so ready,thanks.08139045000..nigerian,

    Like

  9. Suffering says:

    Dear Dr. Gershburg.

    First, I want to thank you for continuing Dr. Halford’s mission of finding a cure for herpes. We’re all grateful for your hard work and dedication. As a patient suffering from this disease, and as a physician, I’m excited by the progress that’s been made, but have a few questions about the results presented from the first trial.

    What do you think happened with patient CC-32? How do you explain the increase in symptomatic days post-vaccination?

    With regard to the 3 patients with HSV-1, it’s interesting that they seemed to note some benefit from the vaccine, but 3 patients is an awfully small sample size from which to draw any conclusions. Do you have plans to expand this cohort?

    How do you convince others like them who are not infected with HSV-2, to volunteer for an HSV-2 vaccine inoculation and do you or they have any concerns that they might become infected with HSV-2 as a result of this vaccine?

    Will those patients undergo additional cultures and serotype testing to determine if any lesions test positive for HSV-2 post-vaccination?

    Do any patients in the study have facial or labial herpes and did these symptoms improve at all post-vaccination? Are there plans to evaluate the vaccine on those symptoms as well?

    I pose these questions out of genuine curiosity and with the utmost respect for your tireless efforts.

    Thank you for giving us all hope.

    Sincerely,
    Suffering

    Like

  10. Michael Kersey says:

    You say that

    “several publications dating back to the 1950s that claim such an effect has been obtained by treatment with a variety of vaccine formulations including inactivated-preparations of HSV virion particles. ”

    Could you provide information about the referenced research please?

    Like

    • stevenet777 says:

      From my understanding, the THERAVAX HSV-2 VACCINE can never be a cure since all the HSV-2 that you acquired still remains alive in your body in the nervous system – ganglia.

      What the Vaccine is meant to do is to cause the body to build up a strong defense against the HSV-2 virus – something that is lacking in those who continue to have outbreaks. By overwhelming your body with enough Theravax HSV-2, the thought is that the body will come to fully recognize the HSV-2 virus and then develop a defense that prevents future outbreaks when any of the HSV-2 virus in your body tries to become active.

      — For instance, many individuals who initially experienced a severe outbreak of HSV-2 will most likely build up a robust immune defense against the HSV-2 virus over time. For those who only had little contact with the HSV-2 virus will initially only get a small area of outbreak. In this case, that person’s defense system will not be so fully activated so as to recognize and build up a strong defense against the HSV-2 virus. Such persons may likely get frequent and continued outbreaks throughout their lives. —

      So, if the Theravax HSV-2 vaccine works, then eventually you will not experience anymore outbreaks (if that is what you are experiencing) because your immune system was given enough HSV-2 via Theravax to build up a powerful defense against the virus. However, as HSV-2 viruses in your body attempt to become active (although you remain symptom free) you will likely still experience some shedding – which means that active HSV-2 virus could still reside near or on the surface of the skin where you would have gotten an outbreak. And this shedding could cause others to contract the HSV-2 virus from you through skin breaks or sex, etc.

      In summary… I believe that, even with Theravax-HSV-2, the chance will remain that you may always still be able to potentially infect others with HSV-2 even though you remain symptom free – but the chances of infecting others would likely be considerably diminished.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Philip says:

        When I asked the doctor he stated that the shedding levels were below the detectable levels but they haven’t had the time (years) to determine if it kept from spreading the virus.

        Like

      • stevenet777 says:

        Hi PHILIP. You wrote
        <>

        This is impossible to answer. Was this your doctor, or the doctor involved with Theravax-2? To whom does the shedding refer to? Does it refer to yourself or to test subjects of Theravax-2, or some other test?

        If this refers to yourself, keep in mind that shedding normally stops at times, even with those who get frequent outbreaks. You will not be shedding consistently 365 days per year. And shedding is not as severe as other times. Not all the virus that is latent in your body will activate at the same time. The amount of shedding, or whether one sheds at all at any given time, has to do with a number of factors that affect your immune system, or something (inside or outside your body) that triggers at least some of your latent HSV-2 to become activated from a latent state.

        However, a person that is shedding and is symptom free will never know for sure if they are shedding, or how much, because no visible symptoms exist although you may feel some tingling or itching sensation which would alert you in such cases that you are likely shedding.

        So, it’s a gamble. . . If that person who has herpes-2, but is symptom free, wants to do something risky with someone else – especially someone that person cares about. . . If the risky behavior continues over time, at some point that person’s partner(s) will become infected when the person happens to be shedding in enough amounts, even though symptom free.

        Like

  11. shawn says:

    Im an asymptomatic carrier of both 1 & 2. i have rare no obs ever. and im curious if theravax will help eliminate the little shedding i have? I want a normal life again. I truly hope this is the answer im looking for. any help or advise would be greatly appreciated.

    Like

    • Vitamin C says:

      Hi Shaw,. Dr. G addressed this question in an earlier post. They have not done any tests on shedding so they don’t know how much shedding is reduced by the vaccine. Currently, the trials are focusing on safety and reduction of outbreaks and other symptoms. My personal opinion is that when the vaccine is available to the general public; shedding will probably be less important

      Liked by 1 person

  12. Ed says:

    Thank you so much for your blog. Could you update the status of Rational Vaccines formula in terms of the human trial? And regarding getting vaccinated in another country?

    Like

  13. Rylee says:

    When will the theravax be available to the general public, meaning not clinical trials- but anyone that can travel to receive it? When is the last clinical trial set to run and where will the vaccine be available? People are suffering.

    Like

  14. Mark says:

    This whole situation with Dr. Veloz and Minerva Labs seems confusing and suspicious. I would think that Rational Vaccines, in their interest of its emerging reputation as a legitimate pharmaceutical start-up, would want to issue some type of official statement or clarification on this issue.

    Like

    • Vitamin C says:

      Hi Mark, I don’t see any reason for suspicion. There have been press releases issued. Dr. Halford had been cited in numerous peer reviewed journals and he was a well published scientist who was a well documented professor at Southern Illinois University. Dr. Halford just passed away a couple of months ago from a long battle with cancer therefore Rationale Vaccines (company releasing Theravax) are likely in the process of reorganizing and GRIEVING due to the loss of the key research (and friend). As a daily blog follower for 3 years, it is my understanding that Rationale Vaccines it tasked with getting this vaccine to market without a major funder. My understanding from press releases, that they are courting some interested parties. I am hypothesizing, that because no big funder has signed on the dotted line yet, that Rational Vaccines needs to insure they remain financially viable.

      Like

    • Vitamin C says:

      It’s a miracle that Rationale Vaccines has had their first human trial. The company has had a major blow…Dr. Halford,the lead researcher sadly passed away from cancer just recently. I no longer worry about HSV because I know, and feel secure with the knowledge that the first ever human trial was a success. Also, Rationale Vaccines has taken the bold and innovate step to skip FDA approval and seek safe harbour in countries where vaccine approval is much more practical!!! So, based ony understanding of info provided by Dr. Hey, Agustin and Rationale Vaccines, the vaccine will be available sooner rather than later!!!

      Liked by 1 person

  15. Dr feroz ahmadi says:

    how can foreign patients get the shots at dominican republic ? Dr Veloz is doing consultation in USA so how do foreign people avail the vaccine ???

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s